Be careful, this is where an integer * overflow can occur by exceeding the max. Backup script: #!/bin/bash typeset dir1:?"usage: 0 backupdir" (id -u) -ne 0 echo "you need to be root" 2 exit 1 -d dir/ echo "dir is not a directory exit 1; dirdir/ echo "Starting (hostname -f s backup at (date)." time tar -exclude/dev -exclude/lostfound -exclude/media -exclude/mnt. You can use kali linux in a virtual environment like VMware or Virtual Box, or even better and more secure, setup a separate machine with kali linux that is only used for hacking and does not contain any personal information about you at all.
Number * of permutations is exceeded while (count max_perms) iterate last password index separately, as we know its number * of iterations matches the alphabet's length for (int a0; a (int) alphabet.